05 Dec Ceasefire Agreement Between Pakistan And India
Artillery battles were an integral part of the LoC until 2003, when the two sides agreed on a ceasefire, the devastation that ensued was catastrophic for both countries and the risk of an escalation of the conflict. The Indian government has informed the Lok Sabha (lower house of India`s parliament) that 881 ceasefire violations have taken place in Kashmir in 2017, up from just 449 in 2016. Of these 881 incidents, 110 occurred along the international border (Pakistan calls the labour border) and 771 along the Line of Control (LoC) – the de facto border separating disputed parts of the territory controlled by India and the Pakistanis.3 Figures presented by the Pakistani army at the end of October 2017 were even higher. The Inter-Services Public Relations Office (ISPR), the media arm of Pakistan`s armed forces, recorded 1,140 violations in 2017, in 2016, there were only 382. In 2017, the Director General of Pakistan Military Operations (DGMO) recorded 1,299 CFVs.4 It is interesting to note that in addition to the ISPR phrase, it was written: “The highest CFVs in 2017 every other year since 2003” – the date of the last ceasefire agreement between India and Pakistan. In a telephone hotline speech, Pakistan commander Gen Shamshad Mirza and his Indian counterpart, Le Lieut Gen Anil Chauhan, said they were ready to “fully implement” the 2003 ceasefire agreement “in the letter and mind.” From the point of the NJ9842 map, it must pass north of the international border with China, at a distance of about 60 to 65 km. Since there were no troops in this area of inaccessible glacial sites, no effort was made to extend the ceasefire line between the NJ9842 and the Chinese border. This area, the Siachen Glacier, eventually became a bone of contention between India and Pakistan.  The LoC, one of the world`s most militarized borders, divides Kashmir between India and Pakistan, both of which claim the Himalayan Principality in one of the world`s longest territorial conflicts.
Riaz Khokhar, Pakistan`s former foreign minister, also said that the rapid decline of CFVs was “due to this understanding and discussions between Musharraf and Vajpayee and the assurance he gave.” 31 And on 23 November 2003, Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali, then Prime Minister of Pakistan, declared a “unilateral ceasefire”. 32 The ritualization of Indo-Pakistani CFVs could face a new type of challenge due to the intensification of military maneuvers on both sides. A number of factors explain the steep increase in NTCs, which typically occur between one-fifth and one-third days in a calendar year. OAFs not only stem from local conditions, but also reflect the quality of bilateral relations and the strategies of their respective leaders.